Download Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy PDF

By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

ISBN-10: 1556524803

ISBN-13: 9781556524806

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of experience shuttle. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, usually within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. magnificent attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage during the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from world wide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are targeted. a last part describes Antarctica this day, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a sector that's drawing progressively more viewers who, just like the adventurers ahead of them, are fascinated about the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.

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South Georgia was an island, not the elusive continent. He named the southern tip of the island Cape Disappointment. Cook sailed southeast from South Georgia. By the end of January, domes of ice-covered land appeared on the horizon. Within a few short days, Cook concluded “that what we had seen, which I named Sandwich Land was either a group of Islands or else a point of the Continent, for I firmly believe that there is a tract of land near the Pole, which is the Source of most of the Ice which is spread over this vast Southern Ocean.

IN SEARCH OF SEALS WITH FURTHER DISCOVERIES 35 What had begun as a routine mission to search for a harbor ended with the rediscovery of the Antarctic Peninsula—ten months after Edmund Bransfield first charted it. When Bransfield’s official report of his expedition later disappeared, American historians, geographers, and politicians declared Palmer to be the true discoverer of Antarctica. For the next 125 years, controversy raged and slanderous aspersions were hurled on both sides of the Atlantic. Tales of forgery, insidious plots, and character assassinations appeared in journals and newspapers.

Since Spanish ships had abandoned the Straits of Magellan, he would navigate the treacherous passage and claim land on the western coast of South America for England. Raiding unsuspecting Spanish colonies along the way would assure profits for investors. Drake would later disguise his true intentions by saying the expedition would search south of Tierra del Fuego for the fabled Terra Australis Incognita. Queen Elizabeth secretly approved his plan. The tenuous peace between England and Spain did not prevent her, or others, from investing heavily in Drake’s expedition.

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