By Wim Soetaert; Erick J Vandamme
''Biofuels covers the use and conversion applied sciences of biomass as a renewable source to supply bioenergy in a sustainable method, ordinarily within the type of liquid and gaseous biofuels. It offers a huge assessment of biofuel advancements from either a technical and a cheap attitude. different construction applied sciences for biofuels that exist or are less than improvement are largely coated extensive, facing both first iteration in addition to moment new release applied sciences. marketplace advancements within the quarter, together with developments on costs, markets and progress also are mentioned. The hyperlink among the technical and within your budget advancements are indicated during the textual content. The interactions among the technical, cost-efficient and ecological features are essentially expressed during this quantity and are literally lined the following for the 1st time in one complete volume.'' ''This entire textual content will end up priceless for chemists, biologists and engineers operating within the rising biofuels undefined, for researchers and teachers drawn to the sphere, in addition to for these lively in traditional gasoline businesses. The ebook can also be suitable to humans energetic in coverage or financing, both in the govt, or academia. This quantity deals a very good resource of valuable details and permits mirrored image concerning the bio-based economic climate in general.''--Jacket. Read more...
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J. Hettenhaus, T. Schechinger (1998) ‘Corn Stover Collection Project,’ BioEnergy ’98 – Expanding Bioenergy Partnerships: Proceedings, Volume 2, Madison, WI, pp 1100–10. 17. E. R. Hettenhaus (2003) Innovative Methods for Corn Stover Collecting, Handling, Storing and Transporting. NREL/SR-510-33893. pdf. 18. Quick, Graeme (2003) Single-Pass Corn and Stover Harvesters: Development and Performance. Proceedings of the International Conference on Crop Harvesting and Processing, 9–11 February 2003 (Louisville, Kentucky USA) 701P1103e.
In addition to cost savings, environmental benefits of reduced nitrogen fertilizer use include reduced run-off to streams and groundwater and reduced emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O), a potent greenhouse gas. 5 pounds of N2 O per 100 pounds of fertilizer applied. 9 metric tons CO2 equivalent per ton of nitrogen fertilizer application. For 30 % of the corn stover used as feedstock, the nitrogen fertilizer reduction is 800,000 tons, for a GHG gas reduction between 1 and 10 MMTCO2 . Recent work suggests that for all corn cultivation systems across the Corn Belt, nitrous oxide generated by soil microbes may be the dominant greenhouse gas emission.
The soluble lignin is transported, precipitated, filtered and used as a process energy source by the biorefinery, replacing fossil fuels or the more bulky crop residues. Hydrolysis of the remaining cellulose to a glucose solution can be readily accomplished at the collection center by adding enzymes or activating enzymes incorporated in the plant. Depending on the enzyme hydrolysis economics, transpiration of the cellulosic solids – less than 2/3 the original feedstock solids – may be a viable option.