Download Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics of Solid by nuclear energy agency PDF

By nuclear energy agency

ISBN-10: 926402655X

ISBN-13: 9789264026551

This quantity presents a cutting-edge file at the modelling of aqueous-solid resolution structures via the mixed use of chemical thermodynamics and experimental and computational innovations. those platforms are ubiquitous in nature and as a result intrinsic to the knowledge and quantification of radionuclide containment and retardation tactics found in geological repositories of radioactive waste. consultant situations for research were selected from the radioactive waste literature to demonstrate the appliance of some of the techniques. This record has been ready through a workforce of 4 major specialists within the box lower than the auspices of the OECD/NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) undertaking. desk of content material : half I. prolonged precis -Introduction: Scope, goals and the Audiene of guidance -Definitions -From Aqueous to stable strategies -Basic Thermodynamics of sturdy suggestions -Experimental and Analystical features -Testing the Aq-SS innovations and strategies in Nuclear Waste administration proper platforms -Report Conclusions half II. conception, Experimental points and circumstances for learn -Theoretical Asptcts of good recommendations and their Solubility -Experimental and Analytical elements -Cases of particular curiosity in proper platforms Bibliography

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Extra resources for Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics of Solid Solutions of Interest in Radioactive Waste Management

Sample text

2). However, applying these concepts successfully to real world problems requires actual thermodynamic data as a baseline for geochemical modelling. Such thermodynamic data can be obtained either from laboratory experiments with synthetic compounds or from analysis of naturally occurring solid solution phases. Here, the focus will be on how to derive thermodynamic data from co-precipitation experiments using synthetic systems at relatively low (waste repository relevant) temperature T < 373 K. There will be some emphasis on high temperature synthesis as well as on samples from natural systems.

These authors presented a convincing case for the formation of CdCO3/CaCO3 solid solution formation through surface complexation of Cd2+ on the CaCO3 surface followed by Cd2+ diffusion into the calcite lattice at ambient temperature. Similar mechanisms have been proposed to operate for other divalent cation calcium carbonate solid solution formation at low temperature. Low temperature diffu- Part I: Extended summary 11 sion of cations into solid lattices is not only restricted to carbonates. In the soil science literature there are numerous examples of cation diffusion into Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, see for instance [1988BRU/GER] where they report evidence of the diffusion of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ into goethite.

In this way a spatial and temporal evolution of the solid solution concentration and composition is obtained. Lichtner and Carey [2006LIC/CAR] have demonstrated that equilibrium of an aqueous solution with a stoichiometric solid derived from a solid solution Part I: Extended summary 19 corresponds to equilibrium of the solid solution itself if and only if equilibrium of the stoichiometric solid is stable. One advantage of this approach is that it is unnecessary to introduce any additional compositional variables to represent the solid solution.

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