By Hossein Askari
The authors of this well timed publication examine a number of varieties and measures of corruption, learn no matter if corruption is extra acute in Persian Gulf international locations than somewhere else, and illustrate the original kinds it takes in oil- and common gas-rich economies. additionally they study the main elements that advertise corrupt practices and the way they effect financial development and social improvement. whereas corruption is globally pervasive and adversely impacts the pursuits of electorate all over the world, it has probably obtained the main notoriety in constructing international locations that experience an abundance of mineral deposits. between those constructing nations, the oil-exporting international locations of the Persian Gulf have bought an important volume of this awareness within the well known media. This publication argues that for intergenerational fairness to be preserved whereas exploiting oil and gasoline reserves, other kinds of capital needs to substitute their depletion to maintain a relentless capital inventory. Corruption, wasteful charges - similar to spending on armament and warfare - or even effective bills - those who enhance person segments of society - rob a lot of the world's inhabitants. The authors finish the publication via delivering a thorough resolution for holding corruption in usual resource-rich international locations. This well timed and thought-provoking paintings will resonate in the educational and company worlds alike. these drawn to center japanese reviews, the Persian Gulf, multinational organisations, company governance efforts and personal NGOs will locate this ebook of specific significance.
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Additional resources for Corruption and Its Manifestation in the Persian Gulf
Establishing mechanisms for good governance is a necessary step towards reducing corruption and sustaining some of the positive gains for political, socio-economic development. Ultimately, governments determine the allocation of societies’ resources (including oil) via mechanisms of governance. 10 shows that mechanisms that ensure voice and accountability, rule of law and regulatory quality are particularly weak amongst the Islamic oil exporters, with the exception of political stability. On voice and accountability, Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia rank amongst the lowest of the 18 countries in our study in terms of the extent to which their citizens are able to engage in the political process.
Moreover, it has been clearly acknowledged that corruption and corrupt practices are un-Islamic and are specifically condemned in Islam. For example, according to one of the Prophet’s sayings: ‘Damned is the bribe-giver (or “corrupter”), the bribe-taker (or “corrupted”) and he who goes between them’, illustrating the severity with which bribery and corruption are viewed. Islam provides guidance on the basic principles of ethical business practices – or a code of ethics. According to that code, engaging in business and commerce is considered a lofty aim, contingent on this not leading to unjust accumulation of wealth (including through bribery, corruption, and so on) to any of the actors, public or private, involved.
10 shows that mechanisms that ensure voice and accountability, rule of law and regulatory quality are particularly weak amongst the Islamic oil exporters, with the exception of political stability. On voice and accountability, Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia rank amongst the lowest of the 18 countries in our study in terms of the extent to which their citizens are able to engage in the political process. It should be noted that in comparison to most other countries in our study, there is little evidence that much progress has occurred over the last decade in the Islamic oilexporting countries adequately to establish modalities essential for good governance.