By Julio Sanchez
Through the improvement of an engineered product, builders frequently have to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the machine and proves its viability. supplying sensible instruments for the advance and prototyping stages, Embedded platforms Circuits and Programming presents an instructional on microcontroller programming and the fundamentals of embedded layout. The publication makes a speciality of several improvement instruments and assets: typical and off-the-shelf parts, corresponding to input/output units, built-in circuits, cars, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat. Read more...
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Extra info for Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming
For example, if four D-type flip-flops are wired so as to produce a four-bit ripple counter, similar to the one in Figure 3-18, the counter will represent binary digits 0000 to 1111. If we wanted to detect the value 1101 (16 decimal), the resulting circuit could be designed as in Figure 3-18. This circuit uses a NOR gate to invert the value of bit number 1. The AND gate serves to trigger the output when bits 0, 2, and 3 are high and bit 1 is low. This state corresponds to the binary value 1101.
Voltage regulator ICs are Zener diodes with a precise, reverse-biased breakdown voltage. The 7805 is usually mounted on a metal base with a drilled hole so that a heat sink can be attached to it. With a heat sink, the 7805 can pro duce up to 1 amp output. Figure 3-3 shows a 7805 voltage regulator IC. output ground input Figure 3-3 7805 Voltage Regulator IC. 3 Clocked Logic and Flip-Flops In the circuit diagrams considered so far, the outputs are entirely determined by the inputs to these circuits.
At this point, all four coun ters wrap-around to zero and a new count be gins. Observe that the not-Q output line transitions opposite to the Q out put. That is, when the Q out put line goes high, not-Q goes low, and vice versa. Therefore, if the pulse into each successive flip-flop originated in the not Q-line, instead of the Q line, then the re sulting circuit would be a synchronous counter that transitions on the positive edge (low-to-high) instead of on the negative edge. If we observe that the not-Q lines also provide a set of ne gated out puts in reference to the Q lines, then it is possible to come up with a circuit that serves both as an up- and down-counter according to the selected set of out puts.