By World Bank
Every year, thousands of kids in constructing international locations fall ailing and die from illnesses because of polluted air, infected water and soil, and negative hygiene habit. Repeated infectious additionally give a contribution to malnutrition in teenagers, and accordingly affects destiny studying and productiveness. This booklet analyzes the linkages among malnutrition and environmental health and wellbeing, and assesses the load of disorder on youngsters, and its financial expenses.
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Additional resources for Environmental Health and Child Survival: Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences (Environment and Development Series)
These impacts on a child’s growth have also been seen to result in cognition and learning problems as well as chronic diseases later in life, an issue discussed in more detail later in this chapter. (c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 24 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND CHILD SURVIVAL FIGURE 2. 3 Environmental Health Inputs and Health Outcomes in the Child’s Life Cycle pregnancy early infancy (0–2 years) example of inputs health outcomes birth and perinatal early childhood (2–5 years) postneonatal postweaning peri- or postneonatal deaths, number of infectious disease episodes, underweight infant and under-5 deaths; incidence of diarrhea, ARI, malaria; malnutrition acute anemia, placental insufficiency, fetal loss, stillbirths chronic restricted growth environmental health vector control, safe water, improved sanitation, indoor air pollution mitigation safe water, improved sanitation, vector control, indoor air pollution mitigation, hygiene promotion safe water, improved sanitation, vector control, indoor air pollution mitigation, hygiene promotion other prenatal care proper breastfeeding, immunizations, micronutrient supplementation, better case management immunizations, micronutrient supplementation, better case management stunting, cognitive and learning impairments school performance, work productivity, chronic diseases such as coronary disease and obesity Source: Adapted from World Bank 2008a.
The first improved cookstove programs in India, for example, were more concerned with the potential to burn biomass energy more cleanly and efficiently than with health outcomes.
Effect of Infections on Malnutrition Up until the middle of the 20th century, nutrition textbooks hardly ever mentioned the role of infections in the worsening of nutritional status, which, in turn, reduces growth in children (Keusch 2003; Scrimshaw 2003). Even though, historically, vitamin deficiencies were known to be aggravated by infections, the effect of diseases such as diarrhea and respiratory infections on malnutrition in children was not recognized, and poor diets were considered to be predominantly responsible for poor growth in children (Scrimshaw 2003).