By Tim Kirk, Anthony McElligott
This cutting edge quantity attracts jointly in a wide-ranging assortment a sequence of recent views at the daily adventure of Europeans within the "age of fascism." The contributions transcend the normal stereotypes of equipped resistance to envision the tensions and ambiguities in the groups, nationwide and native, that adversarial fascism. The authors express that less than the pressures of civil clash, career, or even way of life, reasons have been hardly ever as natural and political alignments seldom as trouble-free as our reassuring collective thoughts of fascism and conflict have led us to think.
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Additional info for Opposing Fascism: Community, Authority and Resistance in Europe
However, the councils already had both tasks well in hand. The mass demobilisation of the army and the retrieval of its food supplies and of other hidden stocks were organised by the soldiers in disregard of the decrees of the MSPD and without the joint authority of the oYcers and the state oYcials who deferred to them. The real motivation for the measures taken by the MSPD leadership lay in its fear of the revolutionary threat from below, which they feared would open the door to bolshevism.
It decreed that oYcials of the old regime must stay in place, property must be protected and food supplies thus maintained. Meanwhile the leadership of the council movement was unclear as to its own role. Decrees came each day from the Berlin executive of the councils, to be countermanded after the intervention of the Council of Six. On 10 November a new state was declared by the executive council of the MSPD. However, this announcement was over-ruled on 11 November after Ebert’s call to existing state and local oYcials to stay in oYce.
Those that survived in central Germany and the Ruhr as strike committees, or which supported workers resisting low wages, long hours and hunger, were also violently 30 Nick Howard suppressed. 9 million and 30,000 deserters was under military law from 3 March to 5 December 1919. A general strike broke out on 5 March, food shops were attacked and Wve police died quelling food riots. At once, Freikorps armoured cars and artillery, supported by aircraft grounded the previous November, attacked the working-class districts of eastern Berlin, at a cost of between 1,500 and 3,000 lives.