By Robert L. Causey (auth.)
The first component to this bankruptcy describes the main targets of this investiga tion and the overall technique of my presentation. the remainder 3 sections evaluation a few needful historical past fabric and introduce a few terminology and notation utilized in the e-book. part B encompasses a short assessment of a few of the tips and notation of user-friendly common sense and set thought. part C comprises an introductory dialogue of forms and at tributes. part D provides a few uncomplicated principles approximately legislation and legislation sentences. A. common PLAN OF THE publication simple medical learn is directed in the direction of the pursuits of accelerating our wisdom of the wor1d and our realizing of the wor1d. wisdom raises throughout the discovery and affirmation of proof and legislation. knowing effects from the reason of recognized evidence and legislation, and during the formula of basic, systematic theories. different issues being equivalent, we have a tendency to feeI that our figuring out of a c1ass of phenomena raises as we increase more and more common and intuitively unified theories of that c1ass of phenomena. it really is consequently average to contemplate the opportunity of one very common, unified conception which, not less than in precept, governs all recognized phenomena. The dream of acquiring this type of concept, and the certainty that it can offer, has stimulated a tremendous quantity of analysis by way of either scientists and philosophers.
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The 1st component of this bankruptcy describes the most important pursuits of this investiga tion and the final technique of my presentation. the rest 3 sections assessment a few needful historical past fabric and introduce a few terminology and notation utilized in the ebook. part B incorporates a short assessment of a few of the guidelines and notation of ordinary good judgment and set idea.
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Extra resources for Unity of Science
Therefore, I cond ude that NE provides a necessary and sufficient condition for nomological-equivalence. This conclusion will be further strengthened by observation of the systematic import of this criterion in a number of theoretical contexts. One obvious type of application of NE is its use in the formulation of various substitution principles satisfied by identities. In my later discussions of theory reduction, the following will be very useful: Suppose that LI contains occurrences of predicate IX, L 2 contains occurrences of predicate 13, and LI and L 2 are uniform substitution instances of each other under substitution of 13 for IX in LI' and IX for 13 in L2' where IX and 13 denote the same kind or attribute.
Intuitively, whatever causal relationship is expressed by one of these law-sentences is also expressed by the other, for these two law-sentences are equivalent given N, where N expresses no caus al relationship. Ali ofthese remarks are especialIy obvious in the case where N consists EXPLANATIONS, IDENTITIES, AND THEORIES 39 of a set of identities. For instance, the addition of an identity to the explanans of an explanatory derivation merely adds additional information about the denotations ofthe predicates involved.
It is well known that law-likeness is not necessarily preserved under substitution of accidentally co-extensional predicates. Suppose that L(P) is a law-sentence containing one occurrence of the predicate 'P', and suppose that 'P' and 'Q' are accidentally co-extensional. Let L(Q) be the sentence resulting from the replacement of 'P' by 'Q' in L(P). Then L(Q) is not necessarily a law-sentence; it may be an accidentally true generalization. However, the example given above is not of this kind, for aH three sentences involved are in fact law-sentences.