Download American Law in the 20th Century by Lawrence M. Friedman PDF

By Lawrence M. Friedman

ISBN-10: 0300091370

ISBN-13: 9780300091373

During this long-awaited successor to his landmark paintings A historical past of yankee legislation, Lawrence M. Friedman deals a huge heritage of yankee legislations within the 20th century. the 1st normal heritage of its type, American legislations within the 20th Century describes the explosion of legislation over the last century into virtually each element of yankee lifestyles. seeing that 1900 the guts of felony gravity within the usa has shifted from the kingdom to the government, with the production of businesses and courses starting from Social protection to the Securities trade fee to the meals and Drug management. significant demographic adjustments have spurred criminal advancements in such parts as family members legislation and immigration legislation. Dramatic advances in expertise have positioned new calls for at the felony procedure in fields starting from motor vehicle legislation to highbrow estate. through the publication, Friedman makes a speciality of the social context of yankee legislation. He explores the level to which alterations within the criminal order have resulted from the social upheavals of the 20th century-including global wars, the nice melancholy, the civil rights circulate, and the sexual revolution. Friedman additionally discusses the foreign context of yank legislation: what has the yank criminal method drawn from different international locations? And in an age of worldwide dominance, what influence has the yank criminal procedure had in another country? Written by way of considered one of our most outstanding criminal historians, this engrossing publication chronicles a century of progressive switch inside of a felony process that has come to impact us all.

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These laws had mushroomed in the late nineteenth century—laws licensing doctors, nurses, pharmacists, indeed, all of the health professions, including osteopaths and veterinarians. There were also laws licensing undertakers, horseshoers, The Old Order 26 plumbers, and barbers. Almost always the rationale was expressed in terms of public health or safety. ≥≤ A cynic or neoliberal would most likely stress something else: the desire to monopolize barbering or embalming, to close ranks against outsiders, to control output, recruitment, and, not least of all, prices.

But Jewish lawyers were hardly uncommon. ∞∫ In the big cities, there were Jewish law firms—Chicago’s Levinson, Becker, Schwartz, and Frank, for example, in the 1920s—just as there were Jewish clubs and Jewish fraternities; but mixing Jew and Gentile in one firm was fairly uncommon. It was an unusual event when Louis Weiss went into partnership in 1923 with a Protestant, John F. ∞Ω Jews were overrepresented among solo practitioners and lawyers with ‘‘one-shot’’ clients. Bad as they were to women and minorities, the professions were a shade more open than the general business world; after all, a lawyer can always practice on her own.

The courts then faced the unenviable job of trying to decide very technical questions, which had no obvious right answers. Page after page of numbers, arguments, estimates, and statistics fill the opinion of a federal judge, who, in 1908 had to determine whether the Spring Valley Water Company, which supplied San Francisco with its water, was entitled to more money than the city wanted to allow it. What was a fair return on the property of the water company? What was that property worth in the first place?

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