By Bernhard Graimann, Brendan Z. Allison, Gert Pfurtscheller
A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes an instantaneous output channel among the human mind and exterior units. BCIs infer consumer cause through direct measures of mind task and hence allow conversation and keep an eye on with no flow. This booklet, authored through specialists within the box, presents an available advent to the neurophysiological and signal-processing historical past required for BCI, provides state of the art non-invasive and invasive techniques, offers an outline of present and software program strategies, and studies the main attention-grabbing in addition to new, rising BCI functions. The ebook is meant not just for college students and younger researchers, but in addition for rookies and different readers from varied backgrounds prepared to profit approximately this important clinical endeavour.
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Additional info for Brain-computer interfaces : revolutionizing human-computer interaction
A) Environmental control with a P300 BCI (see chapter “The First Commercial Brain–Computer Interface Environment”), (b) P300 Speller (see chapter “BCIs in the Laboratory and at Home: The Wadsworth Research Program”), (c) Phone number dialling with an SSVEP BCI (see chapter “Practical Designs of Brain–Computer Interfaces Based on the Modulation of EEG Rhythms”), (d) Computer game Pong for two players, E) Navigation in a virtual reality environment (see chapter “The Graz Brain–Computer Interface”), (f) Restoration of grasp function of paraplegic patients by BCI controlled functional electrical stimulation (see chapter “Non invasive BCIs for neuroprostheses control of the paralysed hand”) letter and writing the message “water, please” or just “water”.
Caplan, A. Branner, D. D. P. Donoghue, Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia. , 164–171, (2006). 45. A. A. D. A. A. Stubblefield, The use of targeted muscle reinnervation for improved myoelectric prosthesis control in a bilateral shoulder disarticulation amputee. , 245–253, (2004). 46. R. Krepki, B. Blankertz, G. Curio, and K. Müller, The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI) – towards a new communication channel for online control in gaming applications. Multimedia Tools Appl, 33, 73–90, (2007).
Control signals are recorded from electrodes mounted on the left pectoralis muscle Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction 21 pectoralis. Moreover, control is largely intuitive, since users invoke muscle activity in the pectoralis in a similar way as they did to invoke movement of their healthy hand and arm. For instance, the users’ intent to open the hand of their “phantom limb” results in particular myoelectric activity patterns that can be recorded from the pectoralis, and can be translated into control commands that open the prosthetic hand correspondingly.