By Nicolas Hardt
The ebook covers the complete scope of traumatology within the vital border quarter among the neuro- and viscerocranium. It makes a speciality of diagnostic operation making plans and the interdisciplinary administration of craniofacial accidents.
In the 1st half, the category and epidemiology of craniofacial fractures are defined and particular difficulties are mentioned. the second one half bargains with radiologic diagnostics and simple neurosurgical measures. the most a part of the e-book covers operative rules and a step by step description of difficult and delicate tissue reconstruction after craniofacial trauma. issues of craniofacial accidents and past due reconstruction of craniofacial defects, together with computer-assisted making plans, are lined within the ultimate part.
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Additional resources for Craniofacial Trauma: Diagnosis and Management
Combined craniofacial fractures. J Maxillofac Surg 8: 52–59. Mc Mahon JD, Koppel DA, Devlin M, Moos KF (2003). Maxillary and panfacial fractures, In: P Ward-Booth, L Eppley, R Schmelzeisen (eds), Maxillofacial trauma and aesthetic facial reconstruction. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh, pp 153–167. Meleca RJ, Mathog RH (1995). Diagnosis and treatment of nasoorbital fractures. In: RH Mathog, RL Arden, SC Marks (eds), Trauma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Thieme: Stuttgart, pp 65–98. Messerklinger W, Naumann HH (1995).
Not associated with mid-face fractures are skull base fractures after axial head trauma from the vertex with fractures in the region of the foramen magnum and the risk of a burst fracture of the first cervical vertebra (atlas ring burst fracture). There are direct and indirect signs of skull base fractures. Direct signs are fracture lines, fracture gaps and steps between fragments. Indirect signs are intracranial air collections and liquorrhea. Intracranial air collections can be demonstrated in 25–30% of skull base fractures (Probst and Tomaschett 1990).
1990; Whitaker et al. 1998; Rother 2000). Classification of midface fractures, according to the classification systems outlined in Chap. 3, surgical planning and intraoperative navigation are based on CT. /occipito-mental/occipito-frontal views - Clementschitsch view - Lateral view - Axial view - Orthopantomogram Bone trauma CT obligatory Soft tissue injuries MRT facultative Fig. 18 Radiological – diagnostic procedure in midface fractures – flow chart Axial images should be scrutinized for: • Fractures of the anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinus • Fracture of the lateral orbital wall • Fracture of the medial orbital wall (blow-out fracture) • Ocular lens luxation or rupture of the ocular bulb • Fracture and dislocation of the nasal bone • Fractures of the maxillary sinus with hematosinus • Hematosinus without apparent wall fracture may indicate fracture of the orbital floor • Fractures of the anterior lateral walls of the maxillary sinus are associated with inward rotational dislocation of the zygoma • Fracture of the zygomatic arch • Fracture of the alveolar crest of the maxilla and of the palate bone • Mandibular fractures (ramus) Particular to detection in the coronal images are: • Fractures of the orbital floor • Fractures of the orbital and ethmoid roofs (frontal skull base) • Fracture of the hard palate • Fracture of the pterygoid process • Mandibular collum or condyle fractures Sagittal CT-scan display (Fig.