By Alexander R. Vaccaro
Thomas Jefferson Univ. sanatorium, Philadelphia, PA. finished reference provides an outline of varied operative therapy strategies in spinal accidents. Emphasizes pathomechanics of spinal wire accidents, modern administration practices, power problems linked to therapy, and person fracture subtype ideas to enhance neurological functionality in sufferers.
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Extra info for Fractures of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine
The inferior facets of the atlas and the superior facets of the axis are slightly convex; this allows signiﬁcant ﬂexibility at the expense of stability (5). The second cervical vertebra, the axis or C2, more typically resembles the other cervical vertebrae. Posteriorly, the axis contains a biﬁd spinous process and anteriorly, the odontoid process or dens. The dens projects vertically from the superior aspect of the body of the axis and articulates with the posterior aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas.
Inhibition of TNF-␣ may improve functional recovery, providing evidence that TNF-␣ plays a central role in the inﬂammatory response to spinal cord injuy. Systemic administration of the anti-inﬂammatory cytokine IL-10 30 min after spinal cord injury can decrease TNF-␣ expression and improve functional recovery of injured axons in a murine model (24). Another study showed a decrease in lesion volume following systemic IL-10 administration 3 days following simulated spinal cord injury (27). Infusion of basic ﬁbroblast growth factor, another anti-inﬂammatory cytokine, diminished the zone of injury following spinal cord injury; while IL-4, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor showed nonstatistical trends toward reducing the zone of injury (28).
The nucleus dorsalis relays proprioceptive information and runs from C8 to L3. Anatomy and Pathophysiology of SCI 13 Figure 1 (D) Sagittal section through a normal lower lumbar spine and upper sacrum of a young female through the lateral portion of the thecal sac. The segmental root bundles converge toward each intervertebral foramen. The L3, L4, and L5 disks all display a slight posterior convexity, and the outermost layers of the annulus ﬁbrosus attach beyond the apophyseal ring. The vertebral bodies typically have a concave posterior contour.