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Nucleic acid and proteins). The major components of viruses are a central core nucleic acid and a protein coat or capsid. Certain viruses contain enzymes, and some have a lipid coat. Viruses die or become inactivated (no longer cable of replicating in a host cell) by damage to the structural integrity of the protein and nucleic acid, including the lipid envelope. A complete virus particle, including the lipid envelope if it has one, is called a virion. The most widely used taxonomic criteria for animal viruses are based on four characteristics: • The nature of the nucleic acid: DNA or RNA, single or double stranded • Structure: spherical (polyhedral), cylindrical (rod shaped), or complex • Presence or absence of a viral envelope (lipid layer) • Size of the viral particle Beyond these physical characteristics, other criteria such as immunological typing and effects on host cells are used.

Outcomes represent only a small proportion of all infections. The best-known members of this group are the polioviruses, which before the development of a vaccine in the 1950s were considered a major public health problem because poliomyelitis is a crippling disease. Widespread use of the vaccine has resulted in the eradication of the disease from most of the world. Enteroviruses Enteroviruses represent a group now of more than 100 types including polio, Coxsackie, echo, and parechovirus [11]. 9).

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a leading cause of pneumonia among college students and is common among military recruits. It does not spread quickly among populations, and contact with droplets generated by sneezing and coughing may be the primary route of transmission [2]. Opportunistic Pathogens Opportunistic pathogens are organisms (usually bacteria and fungi) that ordinarily do not cause disease in their normal habitat in normal healthy persons [3]. For example, microbes that gain access to the broken skin can cause opportunistic infections.

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