By Jacques Descotes
This article presents a concise and complete creation to key immunotoxicological matters for all these drawn to, yet with out previous wisdom of, this quarter of toxicology. the 1st part explores the future health effects of immunotoxicity, specifically the antagonistic results relating to chemically-induced immunosuppression and immunostimulation, hypersensitive reaction reactions and autoimmune ailments, with an summary of significant immunotoxicants. the second one half describes the most recent equipment used to become aware of and assessment, preclinically and clinically, the unforeseen immunotoxic results of xenobiotics. developments in enforcing ideas and up to date adjustments to the regulatory elements also are thought of. The 3rd part examines attainable destiny advancements, together with In Vitro equipment, biomarkers of immunotixicity and possibility overview.
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Additional info for An introduction to immunotoxicology
Patients with congenital defects of the cell-mediated immunity develop severe infections due to pathogens with limited virulence, such as viruses (herpes virus, measles virus), intracellular pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria), fungi and parasites (Aspergillus, Candida, 24 An Introduction to Immunotoxicology Pneumocystis carinii). , 1980). Chronic diarrhoeal syndromes due to cryptosporidiae, Giardia and rotavirus are extremely frequent. In patients with congenital defects of humoral immunity, infections are mainly due to Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
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Meningitis is the most common complication, but bacteraemia, brain abscess, meningo-encephalitis, or pneumonia may also develop. Nocardiosis is primarily an infection of the lung, but dissemination to the skin, the central nervous system, and the skeletal system is also common. haemophilum. Herpes viruses and cytomegalovirus are the most common viral agents (Griffiths, 1995). Cytomegalovirus infections are frequent, particularly in renal transplant patients, and clinically the disease can range from asymptomatic viral shedding to life-threatening disseminated disease.