By Douglas Davies
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Additional resources for Child Development: A Practitioner's Guide, Third Edition
When Bowlby (1980) tied the concept of developmental pathways to attachment theory, he was explicitly leaving room for the possibility that life experiences could alter working models of attachment. He argued that significant new relationships, new opportunities, or new risks could change an individual’s working models, either positively or negatively. The idea that attachment style would be consistent over time has been supported by longitudinal studies of middle-class children. These children, who grow up in relatively protected circumstances, demonstrate high rates of continuity in attachment styles (Waters, Merrick, Treboux, Crowell, & Albersheim, 2000).
Both accept ideas of circular causality and multigenerational transmission of relationship patterns. Minuchin’s typology of interactions in family systems—adaptable, disengaged, enmeshed, and chaotic—closely parallels the attachment patterns of secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized/disoriented, as well as the adult attachment classifications of autonomous, dismissive, preoccupied, and unresolved (Byng-Hall, 1999; Minuchin, 1974). In the clinical situation, a multigenerational approach to understanding current interactions in a family typically finds repetition in patterns of relationships, conflicts, and modes of coping with conflict or distress.
The concept of working models suggests why these intergenerational repetitions occur. For example, family therapists have identified the common pattern of the “parental child,” a child who is implicitly assigned the job of taking care of a parent, often a parent who is depressed. Bowlby has described this concept, using different terms, as an expression of working models of attachment. When a parent inverts the parent–child relationship by requiring the child to take care of him or her, the child may learn that the only reliable way to receive love is to bestow care.