By Ivan Marsic
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2 Reliable Transmission via Redundancy To counter the line noise, a common technique is to add redundancy or context to the message. ” A human receiver would quickly figure out that the original message is “information,” because this is the closest meaningful word to the one that is received. Similarly, assume you are tossing a coin and want to transmit the sequence of outcomes (head/tail) to your friend. Instead of transmitting H or T, for every H you can transmit HHH and for every T you can transmit TTT.
2). 11) The velocity of electromagnetic waves in dry air equals v ≈ 3 × 108 m/s, and in copper or optical fiber it equals v ≈ 2 × 108 m/s. 33 and 5 nanoseconds per meter (ns/m). Given a wireless local area network (W-LAN) where all stations are located within a 100 m diameter, the (maximum) propagation delay is tp ≈ 333 ns. 192 ms. The relationship is illustrated in Figure 1-24(a). Recall from Figure 1-6 that on a 1 Mbps link, 1 bit is 1 μs wide, so the leading edge of the first bit will reach the receiver long before the sender is done with the transmission of this bit.
If errors are clustered, they are not effective. Consider the following example. ” By simply using a spelling checker, your friend may easily recover the original message. ” Obviously, it is impossible to guess the original message unless you already know what Rutherford said. This kind of clustered error is usually caused by a jamming source. It may not necessarily be a hostile adversary trying to prevent the communication, but it could be a passive narrow-band jamming source, such as microwave owen, which operates in the same frequency range as Wi-Fi wireless networking technology.