By Jürgen Fuchs
This quantity illustrates the effect of environmental oxidants at the tissues of the eyes, lungs and epidermis, as good as at the immune approach - highlighting universal health problems, accidents and pathologies caused by means of pro-oxidant environmental xenobiotics resembling irritation, immune reaction, sign transduction, law of gene expression, and carcinogenesis. It presents scientific shows and discusses the results of environmental oxidants on track organs.
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Additional info for Environmental Stressors in Health and Disease (Oxidative Stress and Disease)
However, H 2O 2 is well known as a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide is produced when O 2•Ϫ dismutates. Although this reaction favors acidic conditions, nonenzymatic generation of H 2O 2 is also known to occur at neutral pH. However, the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) facilitates the formation of H 2O 2 by catalyzing the dismutation of O 2•Ϫ at neutral or alkaline pH [Eq. 2] (31). H 2O 2 has been shown to be produced Copyright © 2001 Marcel Dekker, Inc. extracellularly and within the phagosome.
Acute inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase or bacterial oxidase may assist in killing the pathogen. Copyright © 2001 Marcel Dekker, Inc. Figure 4 NO production. L-arginine undergoes a 2-electron oxidation to form N-hydroxy-Larginine. N-hydroxy-L-arginine undergoes a further 3-electron oxidation to form L-citrulline and NO. O 2 is required for the reaction, along with NADPH, which acts as an electron donor. NO• is produced by a group of enzymes called the nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NOS catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine and oxygen to L-citrulline and NO•.
Biologically, the most important antioxidants are glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, vitamins E and C, SOD, catalase, and urate. , manganese SOD, catalase, and glutathione are found in the mitochondria where free radical leakage occurs frequently (155,156)]. Antioxidants thus provide protection to tissues and organelles in inflammatory diseases. However, excessive free radical production causes the depletion of these antioxidant pools, leading to an imbalance in antioxidant/oxidant ratio. For example, our group has previously demonstrated that vitamin E and vitamin C levels are depleted in RA (157,158).