By Edward J. Barbeau, Murray S. Klamkin, William O. J. Moser
This e-book includes 500 difficulties that variety over a large spectrum of arithmetic and of degrees of hassle. a few are easy mathematical puzzlers whereas others are critical difficulties on the Olympiad point. scholars of all degrees of curiosity and talent may be entertained by means of the e-book. for plenty of difficulties, multiple answer is equipped in order that scholars can examine the beauty and potency of alternative mathematical techniques. a different mathematical toolchest summarizes the consequences and methods wanted through competition-level scholars. lecturers will locate the e-book important, either for encouraging their scholars and for his or her personal excitement. a number of the difficulties can be utilized to supply a bit spice within the typical curriculum by means of demonstrating the facility of very uncomplicated thoughts. the issues have been first released as a chain of challenge booklets nearly two decades in the past. they've got stood the try of time and the call for for them has been regular. Their e-book in booklet shape is lengthy past due.
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Validity and legitimacy of method depends on different aspects. g. conformity of implemented method can be dependent on national or international norms like ISO-norms. This factor has formal character evaluating whether the method is conform to existing regulation or norms. Generation of required outputs characterise whether the method or methodology produce required output for given planning and modelling step fully or partially. Let’s notice that among others, some methods have to support generation of objectives and participants values, other methods have to provide numerical values of parameters of solution models, or outline the types and levels of uncertainty.
Quality factors using different methods together The quality factors discussed previously refer to single methods. However, using different methods together for different planning tasks or phases is common. Therefore, additional aspects and rationales from mixed method research will be considered and discussed in Chap. 5 for designing a multi-method approach for uncertainty analysis. 7 Summary and Open Problems The main conclusions of this chapter can be summarised as follow: • The IEP in cities and territories is a complex, multi stage task that needs to take into account different aspects, such as environmental, technical or economic, different participants’ interests and a complex, open energy infrastructure • There are several tasks that have not been addressed systematically using methods or methodology yet, such as integrated modelling or uncertainty analysis.
The requirements and quality factors of planning and decision support methods suggested by  are examined in the context of IEP in cities and territories here. The need for additional quality factors is identified by reviewing the energy planning and modelling studies. The review has been performed using journals, such as Applied Energy, Energy Studies Review, International Journal of Energy Research, Sustainable Cities and Society, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Energy, Energy for Sustainable Development, Energy Policy or Urban Studies.