Download Handbook of Vacuum Science and Technology by Dorothy Hoffman, Bawa Singh, John H. Thomas III PDF

By Dorothy Hoffman, Bawa Singh, John H. Thomas III

ISBN-10: 0123520657

ISBN-13: 9780123520654

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Extra resources for Handbook of Vacuum Science and Technology

Sample text

Consider first the case of very thin aperture plate, for which the area A is more important in determining conductance than the wall area or wall conditions. The volume of gas traveling from one side of the aperture to the other side per unit time — the aperture conductance — is Q = \AV,, (66) when the molecules have a Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. Conductance values depend on the molecular mass and kinetic temperature. The case where wall collisions are more important than the conductance of an aperture is considered next.

Flow rates are proportional to the difference in pressures across the component and the reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight of the gas. The dependence of flow rate on viscosity begins to decrease, because intermolecular collisions are less frequent. At pressures sufficiently low for the mean free path to be several times greater than the vessel diameter or the duct, the molecules migrate through a system freely and independently of each other. This is called free-molecule flow or simply molecular flow, and the gas flow rates are affected mainly by collisions of molecules with the tube walls.

Kelen, Polymer Degradation (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1983), Chap. 7. 1 VACUUM PUMP FUNCTION BASICS Under normal environmental conditions, creation of vacuum requires a removal of gases, contained in atmospheric air, from a given vessel or a chamber. Thus, highvacuum technology involves the rarefaction of atmosphere by as much as 15 orders of magnitude (from 10^ to 10"^^ mbar). This would be relatively simple if the chamber walls did not have any internal gas content and any adsorbed gas at the surfaces.

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