Download Natural Gas Reservoir Engineering by Chi U. Ikoku PDF

By Chi U. Ikoku

ISBN-10: 0894646400

ISBN-13: 9780894646409

Utilizing a structures technique, this article explores how a transformation in any section of the sector construction procedure impacts the functionality of alternative parts. It offers innovations and functions of reservoir engineering rules necessary to the optimal improvement of ordinary gasoline reservoirs. issues comprise abnormally stressed gasoline reserves, fuel good trying out, and optimal fuel box improvement suggestions.

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Therefore. most of the atomization systems now in service in spray combustion field are of the prefilming type. However. prefilming atomizers are fully effective only if both sides of the liquid sheet are exposed to atomization air. This introduces a complication in system design because it typically requires arrangement of two separate air flows through the atomizer. Thus. plain-jet atomizers are preferred in some applications. One of the major drawbacks of air-blast atomizers is the poor atomization at low air velocities during engine cranking.

In both processes, the bulk liquid to be atomized is first transformed into a stream/jet or sheet. The liquid stream/jet or sheet at a relatively low velocity is then exposed to high-velocity air (gas) stream(s). Air is used to improve and maintain the quality of atomization over a wide range of liquid flow rates. The kinetic energy of the high-velocity air stream(s) is used to shatter the liquid jet into ligaments that subsequently disintegrate into droplets. Large scale eddy structures in the air flow impact upon the liquid jet, causing destabilization, stretching, and flapping of the liquid jet.

A liquid may be present in large volume and contained in a reser- Droplet Generation 53 voir. A certain form of concave reflector such as a curved acoustic transducer made of barium titanate may be placed at the bottom of the bulk liquid to generate high frequency sound waves that propagate upwards into the bulk liquid. The intensive waves may cause the formation and subsequent collapse of cavities. The liquid over the acoustic transducer may also form a wavy layer. If the strength of the waves is sufficiently high to overcome the surface tension forces of the liquid, droplets will eject from the ripple crests on the top surface of the bulk liquid.

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