By Christian G. Daughton, Tammy L. Jones-Lepp
content material: prescribed drugs and private care items within the surroundings : overarching matters and review / Christian G. Daughton --
prescribed drugs and metabolites as contaminants of the aquatic surroundings / Thomas Ternes --
incidence and destiny of fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics in the course of wastewater therapy and in ambient waters in Switzerland / Alfredo C. Alder ... [et al.] --
prevalence of pharmaceutical residues in sewage, river, flooring, and consuming water in Greece and Berlin (Germany) / Th. Heberer ... [et al.] --
prescription drugs in groundwater : clofibric acid underneath sewage farms south of Berlin, Germany / Traugott Scheytt ... [et al.] --
Phenazone analgesics in soil and groundwater lower than a municipal stable waste landfill / Marijan Ahel and Ivana Jeličić --
prescription drugs and private care items within the waters of Lake Mead, Nevada / [Shane A. Snyder ... et al.] --
prevalence and destiny of artificial musks within the aquatic method of city components : polycyclic and nitro musks as environmental pollution in floor waters, sediments, and aquatic biota / Th. Heberer, A. those, and U.A. Grosch --
Ecotoxicology of musks / D.R. Dietrich and Y.-J. Chou --
Environmental hazards of musk body spray components / Froukje recoil, Han Blok, and Daniel Salvito --
medicinal drugs in municipal sewage effluents : screening and biodegradation experiences / Edda Möhle and Jörg W. Metzger --
matters approximately prescribed drugs in water reuse, groundwater recharge, and animal waste / Jörg E. Drewes and Laurence S. Shore --
Iodinated X-ray distinction media within the aquatic atmosphere : destiny and results / T. Steger-Hartmann, R. Länge, and H. Schweinfurth --
Multidrug-multixenobiotic transporters and their value with recognize to environmental degrees of prescribed drugs and private care items / D. Epel and T. Smital --
Antidepressants in aquatic organisms : a variety of results / Peter P. Fong --
Veterinary medications and soil caliber : the Danish state of affairs for instance / John Jensen --
Environmental probability overview of prescription drugs : a suggestion with exact emphasis on eu features / Jörg Römbke, Thomas Knacker and Hanka Teichmann --
Regulatory oversight for the environmental evaluate of human and animal wellbeing and fitness medicinal drugs : environmental overview rules for medicinal drugs / Ranga Velagaleti and Michael Gill --
Degradation and depletion of prescribed drugs within the atmosphere / Ranga Velagaleti and Michael Gill --
Illicit medicines in municipal sewage : proposed new nonintrusive device to intensify public information of societal use of illicit-abused medicinal drugs and their strength for ecological effects / Christian G. Daughton.
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Extra info for Pharmaceuticals and Care Products in the Environment. Scientific and Regulatory Issues
Over expression" of these proteinaceous efflux pumps in tumor cells and pathogenic bacteria is widely recognized as enabling resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and antimicrobials. These systems can also be induced (up-regulated) by one drug, leading to enhanced excretion of other drugs (50). Conversely, any of a diverse array of certain chemicals that are able to inhibit these pumping systems can lead to intracellular penetration by, and accumulation of, toxicants in general, and thereby potentiate adverse effects from extracellular concentrations of toxicants that would otherwise prove benign.
3μg/L;X -ray contrast media were found in concentrations as high as 15 μg/L (iopamidol). In 40 German rivers and streams, 31 pharmaceuticals and five metabolites were quantified in at least one sample. 25 μg/L). Frequently, in small rivers and streams, much higher concentrations were detected than in higher-order rivers such as the Rhine or Main. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2001. 39 40 carbamazepine) were detected. Hence, in the aquatic environment, drug residues are ubiquitously distributed.
Receptors) are frequently extremely specific and sensitive; "receptors" essentially serve as switches that upon receiving an incoming "command" then generate an outgoing signal, the value of which is determined by whether the command is blockage by an antagonist or facilitation by an agonist. , industrial chemicals and agrochemicals). , via efflux-pump blockers/inducers or cytochrome P450 inducers/inhibitors), and by a broad diversity in drug-metabolizing/transport phenotypes (genetic polymorphisms).