By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically En
Assists policymakers in comparing the fitting clinical tools for detecting accidental adjustments in meals and assessing the potential of opposed well-being results from genetically converted items. during this publication, the committee steered that larger scrutiny could be given to meals containing new compounds or strange quantities of certainly happening components, whatever the approach used to create them. The booklet bargains a framework to lead federal companies in settling on the course of safeguard evaluate. It identifies and recommends a number of pre- and post-market ways to steer the evaluation of unintentional compositional adjustments that may outcome from genetically transformed meals and examine avenues to fill the information gaps.
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Additional info for Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects
Html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html 1 Introduction HISTORICAL BACKGROUND New techniques, collectively referred to as biotechnology, have been developed to improve the shelf life, nutritional content, flavor, color, and texture of foods, as well as their agronomic and processing characteristics. One specific biotechnology method is genetic engineering, a type of genetic modification that is the basis for many recent advances in breeding technology (see Appendix A: Glossary, for more comprehensive definitions of key terms used throughout this report).
It was not until the mid-1800s that scientific understanding of trait inheritance began to emerge. During the 1860s, through his experiments that hybridized different varieties of peas, Gregor Mendel demonstrated the process of heredity (Mendel, 1866). His revolutionary experiments paved the way for modern agriculture by showing that, through controlled pollination crosses, genetic characteristics are inherited in a logical and predictable manner. Since that time many plants have been bred to include desirable traits, such as pest and disease resistance and the ability to overcome environmental stresses.
Biotechnology refers to methods (including genetic engineering) other than conventional breeding used to produce new plants, animals, and microbes. Conventional breeding is used to describe traditional methods of breeding, or crossing, plants, animals, or microbes with certain desired characteristics for the purpose of generating offspring that express those characteristics. Overview of Methods to Genetically Modify Plants and Animals As exemplified by Mendel’s research, conventional breeding by crossing has been conducted for centuries to produce genetic modifications in crop plants and farm animals.