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Additional info for Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons (7th Edition)
It is necessary, in assessing the spectrum of responses, to consider how different chemicals may interact with each other. Interactions can occur in a variety of ways. Chemical interactions are known to occur by a number of mechanisms, such as alterations in absorption, protein binding, and the biotransformation and excretion of one or both of the interacting toxicants. In addition to these modes of interaction, the response of the organism to combinations of toxicants may be increased or decreased because of toxicologic responses at the site of action.
New York: Wiley Interscience, 1993, pp. 1–23. ): The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1939. Beeson BB: Orﬁla—pioneer toxicologist. Ann Med Hist 2:68–70, 1930. Bernard C: Analyse physiologique des proprietes des systemes musculaire et nerveux au moyen du curare. CR Acad Sci (Paris) 43:325–329, 1856. Bryan CP: The Papyrus Ebers. London: Geoffrey Bales, 1930. Clendening L: Source Book of Medical History. New York: Dover, 1942. Gaddum JH: Pharmacology, 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959.
A synergistic effect occurs when the combined effects of two chemicals are much greater than the sum of the effects of each agent given alone (example: 2 + 2 = 20). For example, both carbon tetrachloride and ethanol are hepatotoxic compounds, but together they produce much more liver injury than the mathematical sum of their individual effects on liver at a given dose would suggest. Potentiation occurs when one substance does not have a toxic effect on a certain organ or system but when added to another chemical makes that chemical much more toxic (example: 0 + 2 = 10).