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By National Academy of Engineering, The Academy Industry Program of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences

The talk in regards to the results of company restructuring on commercial funding in learn and improvement has very important implications for public coverage, on the grounds that learn and improvement is essential to the nation's skill to compete within the worldwide industry. Researchers fear that debt carrier will minimize learn and improvement money; financiers argue that restructuring improves company potency with out affecting study and improvement expenses. This booklet emanated from a symposium subsidized by way of the Academy software. The audio system represented a number reviews from govt, Wall road, undefined, and academia. as well as supporting either side within the discussion, it lets you examine whatever of the others' wishes and expectancies. through proposing numerous issues of view at the factor, the discussions establish parts during which extra study is required to steer coverage judgements.

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The solidification velocity was varied in order to determine the transition velocity νχ where the planar ice growth changes to a lamellar ice growth. 06 μηι/s. The solidification front remains planar, pushing the ceramic particles ahead of the front. Only a few particles are engulfed by the ice, visible from the small dark speckles in the image. With increasing solidification velocity, the planar solidification front becomes unstable (Figure 2B). 2 μηι/s, ice lamellae are formed which push the ceramic particles into the interlamellar spaces, visible as dark lines growing from bottom to top.

5 m/h). The cooling rates needed for such velocities can be realized only in thin objects on cooling plates pre-cooled to extremely low temperatures. This seems apparently to be in contradiction to the observation of a dense layer in the fast cooled bottom region of unidirectional solidified samples, reported by several authors. Such dense layers were observed with sintered samples. A fully dense sintered microstructure, however, does not necessarily need an isotropic microstructure in the green state, but can also develop from lamellar particle packings, when the diameter of the pore channels remains in the order of a few particle diameters.

5 Scanning electron micrographs of fracture surfaces of (a) MS and (b) CS Zr0 2 containing 2 mol% Y 2 0 3 sintered at 1300°C. COMPARISON OF MICROWAVE AND CONVENTIONAL SINTERING OF HYDROXYAPATITE-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITES Fig. 6 shows the effect of sintering regime (MS or CS) at various temperatures and Zr0 2 content on relative density of pure hydroxyapatite (HA)-zirconia composites. Fig. 6 Effect of sintering regime (MS or CS) at various temperatures on relative density of HA 22 · Advanced Processing and Manufacturing Technologies for Structural and Multifunctional Materials V Comparison of Microwave and Conventionally Sintered Yttria Doped Zirconia Ceramics Fig.

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