By Josef Gut (auth.), Dr. Jürg P. Seiler, Dr. Judith L. Autrup, Prof. Dr. Herman Autrup (eds.)
This quantity includes the most papers offered on the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Århus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is noticeable because the software of simple technological know-how to such assorted parts as guy and his setting. The urgent matters that have been handled not just comprise reproductive results of environmental chemical compounds ("xenoestrogens"), but additionally receptor-mediated poisonous responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of melanoma and molecular methods in toxicological examine. the sensible and moral elements of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological danger evaluate, biomarkers of publicity, advanced chemical combos in addition to animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, also are treated.
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Additional resources for Diversification in Toxicology — Man and Environment: Proceedings of the 1997 EUROTOX Congress Meeting Held in Arhus, Denmark, June 25–28, 1997
Nor is it just to ensure that animals function properly, like wellmaintained machines, desirable though that may be. Rather, it is a concern that some of the ways in which humans treat other animals cause mental suffering and that these animals may experience 'pain,' 'boredom,' 'frustration,' 'hunger,' and other unpleasant states perhaps not totally unlike those we experience. The point here is not that the mentioned concerns should blindly be accepted. Rather, it is that for the study of animal welfare to be relevant to the worries which initially prompted interest in the issue, animal welfare must be defined in terms of subjective feelings.
27: 29-35. Koeter HBWM (1991) Current guidelines and regulations in toxicological research. ) Animals in biomedical research. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 17-34. Narveson J (1983) Animal rights revisited. In: Miller HB & Williams WH, Ethics and Animals, The Humana Press, Clifton NJ, 1983, pp 56-58. Regan T (1<)85) The Case for animal rights. ) In Defense of Animals, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp 21-25. 40 Roberfroid MB (1991) Long term policy in tOxicology. toxicology. ) Animals in biomedical research.
If signs of toxicity are observed in these few animals, further testing seems redundant. For the sake of proper safety assessment of no apparent 39 risk, further confirmatory testing on the animals has to occur when no signs of toxicity have been observed in the first few animals included. But in these cases the risk that the animals will suffer is very small. Stepwise procedures can also be introduced in tests for systemic toxicity, thereby reducing total suffering. A general and sometimes neglected aspect of the refinement of animal experimentation is the training and general attitude towards animals of the staff involved.