By Bertram G. Katzung
The most present, authoritative, and complete pharmacology booklet for scientific, pharmacy, and different overall healthiness technological know-how scholars. extensively revered for its readability, comprehensiveness, and association, this pharmacology path booklet offers the basic suggestions that scholars want to know concerning the technology of pharmacology and their software. makes a speciality of the elemental ideas of every drug team in addition to the scientific selection and use of gear in sufferers and the tracking in their results.
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Extra info for Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Ninth Edition
It is likely that other new drugs will be found to do so in the future, perhaps leading to the discovery of new classes of receptors and endogenous ligands for future drug development. Thus, the propensity of drugs to bind to different classes of receptor sites is not only a potentially vexing problem in treating patients, it also presents a continuing challenge to pharmacology and an opportunity for developing new and more useful drugs. Chapter 3. Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Rational Dosing & the Time Course of Drug Action Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Rational Dosing & the Time Course of Drug Action: Introduction The goal of therapeutics is to achieve a desired beneficial effect with minimal adverse effects.
Figure 2–8. Cytokine receptors, like receptor tyrosine kinases, have extracellular and intracellular domains and form dimers. However, after activation by an appropriate ligand, separate mobile protein tyrosine kinase molecules (JAK) are activated, resulting in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activation of transcription (STAT) molecules. STAT dimers then travel to the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Ligand-Gated Channels Many of the most useful drugs in clinical medicine act by mimicking or blocking the actions of endogenous ligands that regulate the flow of ions through plasma membrane channels.
Clinical Selectivity: Beneficial Versus Toxic Effects of Drugs Although we classify drugs according to their principal actions, it is clear that no drug causes only a single, specific effect. Why is this so? It is exceedingly unlikely that any kind of drug molecule will bind to only a single type of receptor molecule, if only because the number of potential receptors in every patient is astronomically large. Even if the chemical structure of a drug allowed it to bind to only one kind of receptor, the biochemical processes controlled by such receptors would take place in multiple cell types and would be coupled to many other biochemical functions; as a result, the patient and the prescriber would probably perceive more than one drug effect.